The vertex coloring problem (VCP) is an NP-hard classical problem in graph theory which can be traced back to a letter written to W.R. Hamilton by A. de Morgan in 1852 in which the famous *Four Color Theorem* has its roots. Besides its obvious theoretical relevance, it has found practical applications connected to scheduling and allocation of resources (i.e. memory for different processes, frequencies for WLANs etc.).

A (proper) vertex coloring of a simple undirected graph G=(V, E) is an assignment of color numbers to all vertices such that pairwise adjacent vertices have different colors. The size of the coloring is the number of different colors employed. The chromatic number of a graph χ(G) is the minimum number of colors required to color G, i.e. the size of its optimum coloring. The VCP can be formulated as finding a minimum coloring for a given graph.

Compared with other related graph optimization problems such as the maximum clique problem (i.e. finding the largest possible subgraph in a given graph), VCP is considerably more challenging; for example it is possible to compute a maximum clique exactly in massive sparse graphs with millions of vertices, whereas fast exact coloring of a random graph with 80 vertices and 0.5 edge density already requires efficient algorithms and a powerful CPU.

# Tag Archives: bitscan

# BITSCAN: a C++ library for bit strings

## A comprehensive view of BITSCAN

BITSCAN is a C++ library dedicated to efficient processing of bit strings. In programming, a bit string is a data structure that stores collections of bits (ones and zeros). It gets interesting when these bits have semantics, i.e. refer to a Boolean property of a group, so that each element is identified by a bit in the chain. In previous posts I have repeatedly stated that BITSCAN “is a useful library to manage bit strings”, and that was that. Readers of our blog have questioned the usefulness of bit strings in practice so I will start this post explaining some common situations in which bit strings may be an alternative to more common data structures.

# Sparse bitsets in C++ with BITSCAN

## Sparse bitsets in C++

*Sparsity* when referring to systems indicates that they are loosely coupled. Thus, a sparse matrix is a matrix in which most of its elements are zero, a sparse graph has very few adjacent vertices (its adjacency matrix is also sparse) etc. Opposite to sparsity is density, and dense systems are those that are strongly coupled.

In a recent post we proposed BITSCAN a recent C++ library to manipulate bit strings. A comparative survey with other state of the art implementations (such as *bitset* (STL), or *dynamic_biset*(BOOST)) may be found here. This post brifely describes how BITSCAN operates with sparse bitsets.

# Determining k-cores in a network: a new BITSCAN application

## What is k-cores analysis?

A major concern of social network analysis is to determine subgroups of actors which cooperate together within a network, in other words from *cohesive subsets*. To this avail a number of notions were introduced in the past such as *cliques*, *k-plexes*, *lambda sets*, *k-cores* etc. Most of these notions are difficult to compute (non linear and many in NP), but computing cores is the exception because linear algorithms are known to exist^{1} .This makes k-cores analysis an important source of information for real networks with hundreds of thousands of nodes, such as road graphs, internet graphs etc.

# A quick approach to BITSCAN

This is is a small explanation about BITSCAN, the C++ library exclusively developed by Pablo San Segundo.

BITSCAN is dedicated to the efficient processing of bit strings. In programming, a bit string is a data structure that stores collections of 1s and 0s. It gets interesting when those 1s and 0s refer to a Boolean property of a group, so that each element of this group is identified by a bit of that chain.

## Time to move your pawns forward

A good example of this is the game of chess. In a chessboard each position is formed by six different types of pieces with two possible colours. A string of 64 bits can encode the position of all pieces of the same type and color on the board (e.g. “white pawns”) by referring each bit to a square with the semantics of a value to 1 (TRUE) if the square is occupied by a piece of the chosen type and 0 (FASLE) otherwise. Continue reading

# BITSCAN efficiency at a glance

BITSCAN 1.0, our exclusive C++ library developed by Pablo San Segundo for sets of bits greater than the CPU register word, has proven its efficiency!

In order to find out if BITSCAN was fast enough to be a substantial improvement over other libraries that manage bit strings, it has been compared with std::bitset and boost::dynamic_bitset similar data structures.

### A comment on basic features

STL ‘s Bitset (stl∷bitset) is NOT dynamic (i.e. the size of the bit string must be provided in compilation time by as a template parameter), so it does not actually provide the same functionality.

Boost´s Dynamic Bitset (boost:dynamic_bitset) is similar in functionality in fast forward bit scanning. However, Boost does NOT currently support reverse bit scanning which is important in many applications.

# Exclusively at biicode, BitScan library!

We like having at your disposal all types of libraries and today we’re bringing BITSCAN, a new C++ 64bit library that our co-founder Pablo San Segundo built.

BITSCAN is optimized for fast bitscanning operations.

How does it operate? It manages bit strings and collects the bits in strings of 64 bits .

BITSCAN library has been used successfully to implement BBMC (bit board maximum clique), an efficient state of the art maximum clique algorithm.